Science with STAPS - neuste Erkenntnisse zum Training im Radsport und Triathlon aus Wissenschaft und Profisport

Science with STAPS: the anaerobic threshold

Science with STAPS – we explain things!

Individual anaerobic threshold, aerobic threshold, 4 mmol threshold and so on ... There probably are many more terms to describe this “mysterious“ threshold so many pieces have been written and lectures been held on. Instead of wasting time defining a name for this threshold, we would rather like to explain what it is all about:Anaerobic threshold in cycling and triathlon FTP

The anaerobic threshold (as we call it) is not the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. And the allegedly occurring acidification is not the reason for the break-off when riding / running at the anaerobic threshold, either.

The anaerobic threshold determines the highest performance / intensity possible at which physiologically there still is a steady state of lactate. In other words: lactate production (via the anaerobic metabolism) is exactly as high as lactate oxidation (via the aerobic metabolism). Unlike the linearly proceeding lactate oxidation, the lactate production is an exponential process (see picture), therefore both metabolic pathways intersect at a certain intensity. As soon as this intensity is surpassed and by climbs above the anaerobic threshold, the athlete produces more lactate than he or she can break down – with the consequence of acidification.

Clearing up the (wrong!) myths surrounding the anaerobic threshold:

  • the anaerobic threshold is not the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, but the maximum steady state of lactate, i.e. both metabolic pathways run “equal“, the resulting lactate concentration remains the same!
  • lactate production does not start at the anaerobic threshold only: lactate is always produced (with or without training load!) and further metabolized!
  • acidification is no break-off criterion: where is acidification to stem from when riding at the anaerobic threshold, if lactate production and lactate break down are at equilibrium?!
  • the limitation of stress duration at the anaerobic threshold is of an almost exclusively energetic nature: the consumption of carbohydrates is so high that it cannot be topped up adequately!


Training support in cycling and triathlon by STAPS

Science with STAPS: VLamax – fuel and opponent at the same time!

VO2max is well known, VLamax as well?

VO2max is a term that has been used in endurance sports increasingly often in the past months. Several years ago, only “insiders“ like sport scientists and coaches knew what it meant, meanwhile also ambitious age group athletes employ the term. This is no surprise as it is mentioned increasingly often in articles about pro cyclists. But what does VO2max mean and why is it of such great importance? The term stands for maximum oxygen intake and is considered as the most important criterion of endurance performance.

The situation is different when it comes to VLamax – a parameter that is not yet as well known, but nevertheless just as important. What both have in common is a “V“ that describes the flow rate as well as a “small“max that describes the flow rate’s maximum state. The only, yet considerable, difference between these two parameters therefore is what is transported: the former transports oxygen (O2), the latter lactate (La).

VLamax stands for the maximum rate of production of lactate and provides insight into the anaerobic metabolism of the respective athlete. Explained in a simplified way this means that anaerobic metabolism converts carbohydrates into lactate without the aid of oxygen. Therefore, the rate of production of lactate is not only decisive when it comes to the acidification of the athlete after very intensive exercise load, but also in general in the metabolization of carbohydrates during classical endurance exercise.

Opponent of aerobic performance

Why? Because the one effects the other! VLamax is the “opponent“ of aerobic metabolism (VO2max) and has a positive effect on short intensive loads, but also limits the steady state of the athlete – and therefore also the metabolism.Science with STAPS | Die VLamax - maximale Laktatbildungsrate

Similar to VO2max, performance also may increase with higher VLamax. This, however, does only apply for short, high-intensity exercise like sprints or attacks. If these intensities surpass a short period of time (i.e. several seconds or a few minutes) the excessive production of lactate swiftly leads to a change of blood pH – and thereby to an acidification of the muscles as well as a drop in performance.

As mentioned before, VLamax, however, significantly influences the “classic“ endurance performance. It influences the lactate production and accumulation, the ability to recover and to metabolize fats. A very low VLamax or anaerobic threshold would therefore be of use for a good endurance performance. Also see animation that illustrates how a low VLamax virtually conserves carbohydrates and increasingly uses fats for energy production.

Science with STAPS | Die VLamax - maximale Laktatbildungsrate

The lower the rate the lower the activity of the anaerobic metabolism. For orientation: presumably more than 95% of all endurance athletes are in the area of 0.3 mmol/l/s (production of millimole lactate per liter of blood per second) to 0.9 mmol/l/s.

Triathlon: the lower the better. Cycling: depends on race load

In Triathlon the ideal alignment of the anaerobic metabolism may cautiously be generalized: the lower the maximum rate of production of lactate the better. Even in sprint races the load over a period of time of approx. 20 to 40 minutes (depending on the respective discipline) is high. It becomes even more apparent in long-distance races: a low lactate production saves carbohydrates due to a strong metabolism and allows for riding submaximal loads.

The alignment of VLamax is less clear in cycling: for long-distance rides and high-intensity workouts (cycle marathons, time trials, mountain rides a.s.o.) extremely low rates (<0,35 mmol/l/s) are desirable. If high intensities are necessary at times, e.g. in criteriums, road races or the like – a rate of production of lactate of 0.40 to 0.50 mmol/l/s is recommended. The VLamax of specialist road sprinters or track cyclists mostly is higher, as this sort of energy supply is of great importance with maximum loads. Therefore, no ideal rate of production of lactate can be defined as it depends on the respective competition’s demands.

It is decisive – in cycling as well as in triathlon – to also attach great importance to the maximum rate of production of lactate when determining the endurance performance. The rate of production of lactate is decisive for athletic success and has to be determined individually in order to find out the background of the athlete’s physiology and to include it into the training process!

Further articles of our Science with STAPS series:

Science with STAPS: Optimize your winter training!

Science with STAPS: efficient winter training, please!

The new season is approaching – that’s for sure. Therefore, it is time to slowly, but surely get yourself prepared for it: let the winter training begin!

When thinking of training in winter many think of cold temperatures, early dawn and often even wet conditions. It is known that an indoor trainer provides the Fredericopportunity to train regardless of external influences, but it does not exactly increase motivation. Hours of indoor bike training often come with many negative side effects: the TV program is nerve-racking, the DVD collection – depending on its size – is running out of new stuff and has to be re-watched – all in all not a really great situation.

Stop complaining and start indoor riding! – there is no training tool for cyclists and triathletes that can be used as effectively and at such top quality as an indoor bike trainer. In order to illustrate this our “Science with STAPS“ series today is dedicated to an exemplary indoor session and shows its efficiency:

Training goal: Increasing the maximum oxygen intake (VO2max)

Test person: STAPS employee

Analysis: Basic endurance session vs. intensive IE session ("intermitted exercise")

Maximum oxygen intake is one of the most important physiological parameters and for us – especially when training volumes are limited – one of the first G1-Einheitthings we want to adjust in winter training. An appropriate means of training is the so-called “intermitted exercise” (IE) that is very efficient. When doing IE training the athlete can take advantage of the characteristics of oxygen intake: kinetics of VO2 are rather sluggish – similar to e.g. the heart rate. IE training therefore is designed in a way that it always takes up one minute and consists of an interval phase (30-40s, @100% of VO2max) and a pause phase (approx. 20-30s, @basic endurance 1).
These intervals are done approx. 6-10 times in a row. The big advantage of this training is that the pauses are short enough to keep the sluggish oxygen intakeIE-Einheit almost steady (i.e. high) for the whole duration of the work-out. Contentwise we are therefore talking about 6-10 x 30-40s at VO2max, for oxygen intake this equals, however, 6-10 minutes in VO2max zone.

Our employee compared a one-hour basic endurance 1 session with an IE session (30 s interval / 30 s pause). Consistent with the training sessions we recorded power [watts], heart rate [1/min] and, of course, oxygen intake [ml/min]:
He did the basic endurance session at an average of 140 watts for exactly 60 minutes and had an average VO2 of 2,161 ml/min. This means an O2 amount of 129 liters.
The IE session consisted of a 10 minute warm-up at basic endurance level 1, followed by 2x10x IE (30/30) with short pauses and a cool-down. The result: the average power was at 185 watts, VO2 on average at 2,744 ml/min which means an O2 amount of 120 liters – within 44 minutes of training. The athlete therefore processed almost the same amount of oxygen at 15 minutes less training time, i.e. he saved 25% of training time. In other words: with IE sessions more oxygen can be pumped through the body and thereby make the VO2max adapt very effectively!

Stop pedaling is not an option!

Indoor bike training also offers an advantage over training “on the road“ when it comes to adhering to the respective training zones or when it comes toPowerchart outside pedaling in general. When you ride outdoors, you have to stop at traffic lights and cross roads, the training zone cannot be adhered to a.s.o. Many situations in which you do not pedal – and therefore do not train!

The adjacent pictures illustrate the frequency distribution of power during a three-hour session outdoors and indoors. It is remarkable that the athlete doesn’t Powerchart insidepedal for a few minutes (<3 minutes) only on the indoor trainer while the “pedaling-free“ (<20 watts) time outdoors amounts to approx. 25 minutes, the added up time below basic endurance level 1 probably amounts to more than 30 minutes. One sixth of the whole training session is therefore lost outdoors!

Most athletes will probably agree that especially higher volumes are more attractive when ridden outdoors. There are, however, enough time slots in which efficient and successful training can be done in 30 to 45 minutes indoors.

It is the golden mean that combines all the advantages!

Training support in cycling and triathlon by STAPS

Coached by STAPS - our training supports

“I don’t need a coach, I am not a pro after all.” At STAPS we often get to hear statements like this when we tell someone what we do. Also “I am not good enough for a coach – it is not worth the effort” is something people often tell us. A well-structured training is, however, key to success – and who does not want to improve?

We at STAPS define coaching as more than just determine intensity ranges, write training plans and evaluate them. For us, coaching has many facets that all lead to one goal: improve the athlete’s performance, no matter whether he or she is an age group athlete or a pro. To do so, we got various options which our athletes take advantage of. Among others, these include – besides writing training plans and analyzing training sessions – nutrition specifications for training and racing, development of a pacing strategy for cycling marathons just like for long endurance events, time trials or triathlon races as well as individual bike fittings to optimize pedaling economics and power transfer.

The STAPS coaches

First of all, athletes who get coached by us take advantage of our team of coaches. They set up a profile of your strengths and weaknesses, provide you with important Das STAPS-Team - die Experten für Leistungsdiagnostiken, Training, Ernährung und Sitzpositionenknowledge, e.g. when it comes to nutrition, advise and support you in the implementation process. We are convinced that face-to-face contact between athlete and coach is essential for the athlete’s improvement and therefore is the most important element of successful coaching. This is why we attach the utmost importance to our coaches’ professional and social competence. STAPS coaches are not only trained sports scientists with bachelor’s or master’s degrees as well as a background in competitive sports (physiology, biomechanics, nutritional science, psychology), but most of them also are athletes themselves. Furthermore, the members of our team of coaches regularly participate in further trainings, visit congresses and study i.e. write their thesis besides working for us to deepen their knowledge and broaden their minds. In a nutshell: they know, what they are writing and talking about – and are able to convey it to the athlete. This is at least the essence of countless feedback talks that we conducted with our athletes.

Our coaches are in direct contact with their athletes via phone, mail and Skype or communicate face-to-face on the occasion ofDas STAPS-Team - die Experten für Leistungsdiagnostiken, Training, Ernährung und Sitzpositionen their diagnostics appointment or, when required, also before or during important races. Communication does, however, not run in one direction only, as a good coach is in continuous dialog with his or her athletes and always also “processes“ their feedback. This is one of the reasons why we do not work with prefabricated training plans and write new training plans after having received the respective athlete’s response only. It is essential for a real performance improvement that the coach always reacts to the athlete’s current physical and psychological situation.

You can find our sport scientists here: the STAPS coaches!

Das STAPS-Team - die Experten für Leistungsdiagnostiken, Training, Ernährung und Sitzpositionen

STAPS coaching – strategy and structure

STAPS build their successful coaching strategy on three pillars:

  1. A physiological profile of the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses that is determined by STAPS performance diagnostics and gets regularly verified.
  2. The athlete’s individual situation i.e. the factors that need to be considered in training. These include e.g. available training time, particular training camps, alternative training options and of course the athlete’s social environment i.e. family, job as well as other obligations. All is coordinated accordingly.
  3. The athlete’s goals. These may be a particular ranking position or finish time at a particular race. The goal may, however, also be to lose weight or to improve the athletic performance. The athlete him- or herself decides on the goal, we support him or her to set it realistically.

Physiologische Stärken und Schwächen des Sports aufdecken, um diese im Training zu verbessernTraining with STAPS

Athletes training with STAPS get individual coaching tailored to their individual strengths and weaknesses, their goals and of course their financial budget.

Before we start we get to know each other. First on the phone then in person for the first performance diagnostics on which the training plans are based in order to be able to take physiological weaknesses into consideration, too. Therefore, there is no algorithm behind our training plans as with some software, app or training platform.Physiologische Stärken und Schwächen des Sports aufdecken, um diese im Training zu verbessern

When drawing up our training plans we take current scientifically verifiable findings into account. There is no such thing as a philosophy that is coined by a certain training style. Time-consuming basic endurance workouts in winter? Not an option for an individual training plan. There are no training contents that are tied to a certain time of the year, training sessions are exclusively based on the three STAPS training pillars. Also in winter, a session may be short and tough, if it contributes to the development of the athlete.

There is no trial training like “let’s do some basic endurance for three months and then two weeks of intense training“, either. First, because it is not particularly motivating, second – and even more important – because performance diagnostics reveal weaknesses on which we can directly start to work on. In order to objectively determine if the training takes an effect – i.e. the effect wanted – the performance improvement and the development of the athlete is regularly verified by further diagnostics. Therefore, there is some kind of guarantee that comes with this concept that you neither waste time nor do junk miles and realize after 3 months that basic endurance training turned out not to be the right approach.

Training units are only a tool. An important characteristic of modern coaching is to connect them sensibly, to adjust them to the individual athlete’s level of fitness and to integrate them into the everyday life of an age group athlete without overstraining or subchallenging him or her.

There is no other type of sport with so much easily accessible training data as cycling i.e. the cycling leg in triathlon racing. “Performance“ can only be measured precisely, analyzed and used for training control in these types of sport. Particularly this “riding by numbers“ is extremely efficient and time-saving. It can be planned meticulously, not a single meter is ridden for nothing and it prevents overtraining as well as subchallenging an athlete. This does not mean, however, that our athletes must not train on a whim from time to time. We are able to draw conclusions from these performance data as well and classify these rides as training.

Data analysis – via power data or heart rate – does not only support training control, but also makes training success visible swiftly and allows for an immediate adaption of future training sessions to the respective improvements. Furthermore, our coaches analyze the power data generated during a race that enables them to draw conclusions in relation to energy supply and the respective pacing strategy.


Sport and nutrition go hand in glove. Particular sessions even call for a nutrition strategy before, during and after training in order to reach the training goal. Therefore, nutrition is part of every STAPS coaching.

Efficient training of the metabolism is almost impossible with filled How to train your fat metabolism in cycling and triathlonglycogen stores, just like high-intensity training does not make sense without a sufficient supply of some carb fuel. Substances like nitrates (beetroot) or caffeine may improve performance; others like vitamin C weaken the training stimulus in contrast. We consider all this when planning our athletes’ trainings – and also the body weight that certainly plays an important role when it comes to watts per kilogram. All this, however, is done according to individual disposition, training i.e. race goal as well as individual circumstances:

A short note on the often misinterpreted subject of “training on empty stomach“. We hardly ever make our athletes ride without any fuel, but employ the “train low“ principle, i.e. low-carb nutrition with an emphasis on fat and protein supply. This way, we aim at the calorie balance to stay on a similar level as with high-carb nutrition. Nobody will go hungry. We rather demand our athletes to “start the session without carbs“ instead of using the term “on an empty stomach“. Furthermore, we only use this way of training if particular physiological weaknesses are to be tackled (e.g. reduction of max. lactate production rate, improvement of metabolism a.s.o.).

Find more insights on this in our STAPS advisor with 5 tips of how to improve your fat metabolism!

In addition to this we integrate particular training sessions in the course of the year that serve to test nutrition strategies for racing in order to make sure the athlete tolerates it in the heat of the race and to determine when he or she has to eat what. We work out a race strategy for our athletes so they know how much liquids, carbs, macro nutrients if necessary (especially in ultra endurance sports), they should consume and how bio boosters like beetroot or caffeine are used to improve performance.

Of course, we also monitor this strategy after a race and analyze the race.

Advise on tactics: perfect pacing

Please do not get us wrong, we would never tell our cyclists where to attack in a race – in pro sports this is the job of the athletic director anyway. Due to the many physiological parameters, we are in a position, however, to predict the perfect pacing without any problems, i.e. which race passages may be ridden at what performance level without the athlete cracking up at some point. This is not only true for long-distance events or cycle marathons, but particularly for time trials as well as the cycling leg in triathlon. Especially in the latter it is essential to distribute one’s power well, as a (marathon) run has to be completed after getting off the bike. By means of metabolic analyses as well as analyses of the fat and carb consumption that are part of the STAPS performance diagnostics, we even are able to predict certain finishing times.


You want to improve and become faster? Then you should start investing in the motor, i.e. in you, instead of spending money on the chassis like carbon wheels, an ultra-light frame or electronic gears. Our STAPS “tuning“ team is looking forward to lifting your performance to the next level. Further questions? Please call us or write an email.

You will find here all information on our training packages and offers: STAPS Coachings